Enlaces 01.11.2014

Hayek and libertarianism. In defence of spontaneous order. The Economist
According to Adam Smith, Friedrich Hayek and everyone else who knows what he or she is talking about, well-functioning markets depend, inter alia, upon clear property rights and a judicial system that enforces agreements and resolve disputes. These institutions set the basic rules that govern the elements in the system (eg, you and me, in our capacity as buyers and sellers of goods, services, and labour) and account for its stable, higher-level emergent properties, such as allocative efficiency. The "rules of the game" determine the pattern or order that emerges when we, the players, play by those rules. The not-really-libertarian idea, if I may pursue the games metaphor, is that certain clear and simple rules can produce unpredictably complex and rewarding patterns of play. It's not that a bunch of random athletes dumped without instruction on a pitch will sooner or later spontaneously produce a gripping, well-ordered sporting spectacle.
Guía para luchar contra tu cerebro: los sesgos cognitivos. Jaime Rubio Hancock
Sesgo de atribución. Nosotros hemos conseguido nuestro empleo porque hemos trabajado duro y somos inteligentes y creativos, pero Juan está ahí porque es el sobrino del gerente. También tendemos a pensar que nuestra personalidad, comportamiento y creencias son más flexibles y menos dogmáticas que las ajenas.
Áreas políticas óptimas. Manuel Conthe
La diversidad de lenguas, más que una "fuente de riqueza", es una realidad histórica, como la diversidad de los enchufes o de las medidas de peso o longitud. Cuestión distinta es que cada lengua haya acumulado, a lo largo de su historia, joyas literarias dignas de admiración. Pero, en lo que atañe a la promoción de lenguas vivas, la Unión Europea debiera, como Francia e Italia en el siglo XIX, potenciar el inglés como lengua común (¡no única!), sin perjuicio de que cada uno sigamos hablando también la nuestra.
The Learning Myth: Why I'll Never Tell My Son He's Smart. Salman Khan
My 5-year-­old son has just started reading. Every night, we lie on his bed and he reads a short book to me. Inevitably, he’ll hit a word that he has trouble with: last night the word was “gratefully.” He eventually got it after a fairly painful minute. He then said, “Dad, aren’t you glad how I struggled with that word? I think I could feel my brain growing.” I smiled: my son was now verbalizing the tell­-tale signs of a “growth­ mindset.” But this wasn’t by accident. Recently, I put into practice research I had been reading about for the past few years: I decided to praise my son not when he succeeded at things he was already good at, but when he persevered with things that he found difficult. I stressed to him that by struggling, your brain grows. Between the deep body of research on the field of learning mindsets and this personal experience with my son, I am more convinced than ever that mindsets toward learning could matter more than anything else we teach.
Markthal Rotterdam / MVRDV